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2018年医博英语作文预测范文(一)

来源:互联网 时间:2018/3/3 11:19:25

  2018年的医学考博冲刺阶段,距离考试仅剩7天的时间,为帮助考生更好地应对考试,环球卓越为考生分享2018年医博英语作文预测范文(一)。

  医学考博英语的写作是要求考生阅读一篇800-100字的汉语文章后,在50分钟内写出一篇约200字英语摘要,考生需要迅速的浏览文章,抓住文章的重要的信息,及时整合,使用规范的英语写作手法将其表述出来。摘要要求内容简洁,全面。

  Part V Writing (20%)

  Directions: In this part there is an essay in Chinese. Read it carefully then write a summary of 200 words in English on the ANSWER SHEET. Make sure that your summary covers the major points of the passage.

  滥用抗生素的危害

  抗生素滥用已成为世界范围内公共卫生领域的重大问题。除污染环境、威胁人体健康外,因产生耐药性而出现的 “超级细菌”,是目前最令人担心的问题。

  开发一个新药一般需要 10 年左右时间,而一代耐药菌的产生往往只需要两年。抗生素滥用情况加重,最终会导致“超级细菌”横行。按照目前耐药情况的发展趋势,我国很有可能成为最先陷入超级细菌频生、最终无抗生素可用境地的国家之一。因为细菌变异速度太快,一些国家不得不通过政府出资来推动解决这一问题。

  专家说,尽管地表水中抗生素的浓度比医用剂量低得多,但长期不间断地排放,会污染地下水和土壤,进而污染食物。人和动物置身其中,很可能感染耐药菌。

  有关资料显示,截至 2017 年我国 7 岁以下儿童因为不合理使用抗生素造成耳聋的数量多达 30 万人,占耳聋儿童总数的 30%~40%,而一些发达国家却只占 0.9%。

  据调查,农村是抗生素滥用的重灾区,不论是养殖业还是医疗用药,都普遍存在盲目使用抗生素的问题。滥用抗生素会损伤肝肾,产生不良反应,导致人体菌群失调免疫力下降。

  一般说来,滥用抗生素有四大危害。

  第一,毒副作用。

  是药三分毒,应严格遵照医嘱服药,切不可盼复心切,擅自加大抗菌药物 (包括抗生素和人工合成的抗菌药,如氟哌酸) 的药量,否则很可能损伤神经系统、肾脏、血液系统。尤其是对肝肾功能出现异常的患者,更要慎重。需要强调的是,一般来说,轻度上呼吸道感染选用口服抗生素即可,但很多人却选择了静脉输液,这无形中也增加了出现副作用的风险。

  第二,过敏反应。

  多发生在具有特异性体质的人身上,其表现以过敏性休克最为严重。青霉素、链霉素都可能引发,其中青霉素最常见也更为严重。过敏反应严重时可能致命。

  第三,二重感染。

  当用抗菌药物抑制或杀死敏感的细菌后,有些不敏感的细菌或霉菌却继续生长繁殖,造成新的感染,这就是 “二重感染”。这在长期滥用抗菌药物的病人中很多见。因此治疗困难,病死率高。

  第四,耐药

  由于细菌的进化永远不会停止,因而对任何抗生素都会有产生耐药性的可能。抗菌药物的滥用正让我们付出巨大的代价,药品不良反应、药源性疾病大量增加,越来越多的细菌对抗药品的能量不断增大,例如幽门螺旋杆菌,对喹诺酮类药品的耐药性,已经升至百分之八十二。而且由于药物长期刺激,使一部分致病菌产生变异、成为耐药菌株。这种耐药性既会被其他细菌所获得,也会遗传给下一代。“超级细菌” 很大程度上就是抗菌药物滥用催生出来的。如果这种情况继续恶化下去,很可能使人类面临感染时无药可用的境地。

  作文的标题

  Hazards of Antibiotic Abuse

  定 义

  Antibiotic misuse, sometimes called antibiotic abuse or antibiotic overuse, refers to the misuse or overuse of antibiotics, with potentially serious effects on health.

  It is a contributing factor to the development of antibiotic resistance, including the creation of multidrug-resistant bacteria, informally called "super bugs", which can develop resistance to multiple antibiotics cause life-threatening infections.

  现 状

  Antibiotic resistance is one of the world's most pressing health problems. According to a recent survey, up to one-third to one-half of antibiotic use in humans is unnecessary or inappropriate.

  The rapid emergence of resistant bacteria is occurring worldwide, endangering the efficacy of antibiotics, which have transformed medicine saved millions of lives. Many decades after the first patients were treated with antibiotics, bacterial infections have again become a threat.

  Antibiotics are drugs used for treating infections caused by bacteria. Also known as antimicrobial drugs, antibiotics have saved countless lives. Misuse overuse of these drugs, however, have contributed to a phenomenon known as antibiotic resistance. This resistance develops when potentially harmful bacteria change in a way that reduces or eliminates the effectiveness of antibiotics.

  Antibiotics have been commonly available since the 1940s, have done wonders at saving patients with infections ranging from pneumonia to sexually spread diseases. But bacteria have increasingly gained the power to shrug off antibiotics.

  原 因

  The overuse of antibiotics — especially taking antibiotics even when they're not the appropriate treatment — promotes antibiotic resistance. According to the Centers for Disease Control Prevention, up to one-third to one-half of antibiotic use in humans is unnecessary or inappropriate.

  Experts say chances of resistance increase when antibiotics are not used long enough or are taken for the wrong reasons, allowing bacteria to survive adapt.

  Livestock producers routinely give antibiotics to animals to make them grow faster or help them survive crowded, stressful, unsanitary conditions. When these drugs are overused—by humans or animals—some bacteria become antibiotic-resistant, threatening the future effectiveness of these medicines. Public-health officials say antibiotic resistance is one of the leading human health threats of our time.

  There has been massive use of antibiotics in animal husbandry. The most abundant use of antimicrobials worldwide are in livestock; they are typically distributed in animal feed or water for purposes such as disease prevention growth promotion.

  Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics insufficient infection control in health care facilities can contribute to drug resistance put patients at risk for deadly infections, like C. difficile-associated diarrhea.

  危 害

  Overuse is one reason antibiotics are losing their punch, making infections harder to treat.

  Frequent inappropriate use of antibiotics can cause bacteria or other microbes to change so antibiotics don’t work against them. This is called bacterial resistance or antibiotic resistance. Treating these resistant bacteria requires higher doses of medicine or stronger antibiotics. Because of antibiotic overuse, certain bacteria have become resistant to even the most powerful antibiotics available today.

  Antibiotic resistance is a widespread problem, one that the Centers for Disease Control Prevention (CDC) calls "one of the world's most pressing public health problems." Bacteria that were once highly responsive to antibiotics have become more more resistant. Among those that are becoming harder to treat are pneumococcal infections (which cause pneumonia, ear infections, sinus infections, meningitis), skin infections, tuberculosis.

  In addition to antibiotic resistance, overusing antibiotics can lead to other problems. Antibiotics kill many different bacteria, even the good ones that help keep the body healthy. Sometimes taking antibiotics can cause a person to develop diarrhea due to a lack of good bacteria that help digest food properly. In some cases, bad bacteria, like Clostridium difficile (or C diff), may overgrow cause infections.

  举 措

  Now more than ever is the time for public health authorities health care facilities to work together. Health departments, track alert health care facilities to drug-resistant outbreaks in their area. Health care facilities, work with public health authorities to share information about antibiotic-resistant germs C. difficile to stop their spread.

  With effective infection control antibiotic stewardship efforts, we could save 37,000 lives over five years.


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