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2018医学考博英语语法考点之非谓语动词

来源:不详 时间:2018/1/3 13:05:22

  在医学考博英语中,语法很重要,弄清楚语法结构,考生在阅读文章的时候才不至于晕头转向。环球卓越为考生整理医学考博英语语法考点,以供考生参考。

  非谓语动词

  在句子中充当除谓语以外的句子成分的动词形式叫做非谓语动词。非谓语动词分为三种形式:不定式,动名词,和分词(分词包括现在分词和过去分词)。

  1)不定式

  时态\语态    主动      被动

  一般式    to do      to be done

  完成式    to have done  to have been done

  2)动名词

  时态\语态    主动      被动

  一般式    doing     being done

  完成式    having done  having been done

  3)分词

  时态\语态    主动      被动

  一般式    doing     being done

  完成式    having done  having been done

  否定形式: not +不定式, not + 动名词, not + 现在分词

  1)动词不定式——只能接不定式做宾语的动词有:

  decide, hope, learn, manage(打算), offer, prepare, agree, refuse, fail(未), pretend, happen(碰巧), promise, plan(打算,计划)

  a) 测试作宾语时不定式带补语的结构

  这种结构的常用动词有:find、think、consider、make等,基本句型是: v. + it + adj + to do

  [例]Do you consider wise to ignore him

  A. it is

  B. it to be

  C. it as being

  D. it

  b) 不定式在svoc句型中的应用

  解题的关键是记住带不定式作宾语补足语的动词,如:ask、tell、allow、enable、expect、get、require、request、cause、urge、want、force、order等。

  [例]They don’t allow in the library, but they allow people in the restroom.

  A. to smoketo smoke B. smokingsmoking C. to smokesmoking D. smokingto smoke

  c) 不定式作定语的用法

  (1)与其他非谓语形式或谓语形式的区别

  [例]The question tomorrow is whether income tax should be increased.

  A. to be debated

  B. debates

  C. debating

  D. debated

  (2)介词的使用

  [例]The boy’s father bought him a large toy train .

  A. which to play with B. to play with it C. to play with D. at which to play

  d) 不定式的时态、语态

  不定式完成时表示不定式动作发生在主句谓语动作之前,不定式被动语态表示不定式的逻辑主语是其动作的承受者,be soory、be glad、seem或say、find、hear、report等动词的被动语态后加不定式完成时态较为常见。

  [例1]The new power station is reported within three years.

  A. to have completed

  B. to have been completed

  C. having been completed

  D. to complete

  [例2]Mr. Johnson preferred heavier work to do.

  A. to be given

  B. to be giving C. to have given

  D. having given

  e) 不定式作状语

  [例1]The police inspector spoke to the little girl kindlt her.

  A. not to frighten

  B. in order to not frighten

  C. so as not to frighten

  D. so not as to frighten

  [例2]He moved away from his parents, and missed them_____ enjoy the exciting life in New York. A. too much to

  B. enough to C. very much to

  D. much so as to

  2)动名词

  a) 只能接动名词做宾语的动词有:

  miss, mind, enjoy, suggest, practise, persist, quit, admit, appreciate, deny, escape, complete, fulfil, acknowledge, favour, delay, postpone, finish, avoid, prevent, recall, recollect, risk, consider

  b) 只能接动名词的一些常用句型\结构: It’s no good/use/fun (in) doing sth

  There is no need/point/use/sense (in) doing sth. be busy/be worth doing sth.

  have difficulty/trouble/problem (in) doing sth

  spend/waste time (in) doing sth can’t help doing sth

  confess to, object to, be opposed to, look forward to, contribute to, be used to, be devoted to, be dedicated to, lead to, refer to, equal to, stick to, belong to, thanks to, be accustomed to doing sth

  c) 既可接动名词又可接动词不定式做宾语的有:

  ① 接动词不定式和动名词作宾语而意义差别不大的动词:love, like, dislike, hate, begin, start, continue, intend, prefer, propose, etc.

  ② 可跟动词不定式和动名词作宾语但意义有差别的动词:歧义动词中已讲。

  ③ need, want, require, deserve + 动名词/+不定式被动态,表被动意义。

  The pencil needs sharpening.(to be sharpened)

  [例1]Jean did not have time to go to the concert last night because she was busy for her examination.

  A. to prepare

  B. preparing

  C. to be prepared

  D. being prepared

  [例2]I appreciate to your home.

  A. to be invited

  B. to have invited

  C. having invited

  D. being invited

 



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