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医学考博英语阅读理解文章出自哪里?

来源:环球卓越 时间:2018/1/8 9:57:36

    2018年医学考博正在备考阶段,医学考博的考试题型包括英语和专业课的考试,医博英语的的考试是有一定的难度的,特别是医博英语试卷中一共有6篇阅读理解。因此考生一定要重视医博英语能力的培养。有的考生询问医博英语阅读理解的题源是哪里的文章,环球卓越为考生解答这个问题。

  我们知道医博英语不同于其他考博的英语试卷,其中涉及很多医学类专业知识。因此经过对历年真题的学习发现,阅读理解有80-90%的文章来源于杂志New.Scientist和The Journal of the American Medical Association,JAMA。

  其中New Scientist 是英国发行的世界顶级科技杂志,也是全国医学博士英语统考阅读理解的重要题源。

  全国医学博士英语考试的阅读理解文章全部选自英美主流报刊杂志,而且文章的内容很少做修改与增删。因此,我们一定要了解英美报刊文章的特点和规律,才能更好地把握医博英语考试阅读理解的定位与风格。

  英美报刊杂志,尤其是英国的,常用 “客观”、“公正” 来体现报道的价值。即所谓的:

  “unprejudiced, unopinionated, uninvolved,unbiased”

  不偏不倚,不予评论 ,不加参与,不带偏见

  因此,通常来看,文章作者对于文章中探讨的主题都会以比较中立客观的角度去分析。也就是为什么很多医博英语考试阅读理解部分一旦问到作者态度的时候,答案大部分都是跟中立客观有关。

  此外,大家也要注意时效性。最近这几年考试中会经常遇到一些时髦话题的文章,比如达芬奇机器人诉讼案等等。所以大家平时最好能够经常关心医疗界和科技界时事,积累一些必要的背景知识,抓住相关的时事热点,能够帮助我们很好的了解医博英语的考试。

  为帮助考生更好的了解医博英语的题源文章,环球卓越为考生摘取了New Scientist中的一篇文章。

  Stone tools helpd shape human hands

  AROUND 1.7 million years ago, our ancestors' tools went from basic rocks-banged-together to chipped haxes. The strength dexterityneeded to make use the latter quickly shaped our hands into what they are today – judging by a fossilthat belongs to the oldest known anatomicallymodern hand.

  The 1.7-million-year-old Acheulean haxes were some of the first stone tools. Over the next million years, these chunkyteardrop-shaped rocks became widely used before being replaced by finer, more precise flint tips. But how our ancestors' hands evolved into a shape that could make such tools is a bit of a mystery.

  Before the haxes appeared, our ancestors hadprimitive wrists: good for hanging from branches, but too weak to grasp handle small objects with much force. no hbones had been found to fill the gap between 1.7 million years ago 800,000 years ago – by which time humans had developed the hands we have today. Now, a new fossil is helping bridge that gap.

  In 2010, a team led by Fredrick Kyalo Manthi of the National Museums of Kenya discovered an intriguingbone in the north of the country. Carol Ward of the University of Missouri colleagues identified it as a third metacarpal, the long bone in the palm between the middle finger the wrist.

  Like modern human metacarpals, it has a small lump at its base – the styloid. This projection helps stabilise the wrist when the his gripping small objects between the thumb fingers.Isotope datingrevealed the bone to be about 1.4 million years old. It is likely to have belonged to Homo erectus.

  H bones of early Homo erectus are almost unknown, says Richard Potts of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC." Having such a well-preservedspecimen begins to answer questions about hevolution," he says.

  "This is an exciting find," agrees Mary Marzke of Arizona State University in Tempe. It shows that our ancestors' handswere already evolving into their modern form 1.4 million years ago. The forceful, repetitive sustained processes of tool use, such as digging with rocks, would have made stronger hands desirable, says Marzke.

  This would have been particularly useful for knocking off flakes to form sharpen haxes, says Potts. Once the important wrist features were in place, it became easier for later hominids to make smaller, finer tools.

  Because the fossil is younger than the first tools, Ward's team believe it is the first evidence of anatomy evolving to suit a new technology. As stone tools became more widespread, those who had the wrist structure to use them would have had an evolutionary advantage over their weaker-wristed kin. "The way we look today has been shaped by our behaviour over millions of years," says Ward. She presented the research at this week's meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists in Knoxville, Tennessee.

  

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